Primary cell culture of human adenocarcinomas–practical considerations.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19496473

Low efficacy of single-dose albendazole and mebendazole against hookworm and effect on concomitant helminth infection

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22235353

Carcinomul bazocelular vulvar-aspecte histologice-tradus din lb engleză

ATENȚIE!!!

<<<<<<<<<<<Nu sînt traducător profesionist! La finalul articolui găsiți linkul către articolul în lb engleză, unde vă puteți documenta mai bine dacă ceva vă sună ciudat. Sugestiile sînt binevenite! Eu nu sînt decît un asistent de histopatologie și biolog, nu medic, deci traducerea unor termeni tehnici mi-a pus probleme, Dacă considerați că i-am tradus incorect, lăsați comentariu sau mesaj privat.

Aceste articole le-am găsit pe siteuri străine, pe cînd mă documentam pt lucrarea de diplomă și le-am adunat pe toate pe acest blog, gîndindu-mă că le-ar putea fi de folos și altor studenți. Nu îmi amintesc de unde am copiat acest articol , de aceea nu are link către siteul original! Este doar o copie și traducerea mea, NU ÎMI APARȚINE, este pus pe blog doar pentru documentare!!>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Este similar cu carcinomul bazal celular cutanat.

Epidemiologie:

Reprezintă 2-8% din toate cancerele vulvare.

De obicei apare la femei >60 ani.

Vîrsta medie la diagnosticare: 70 ani (se poate întinde între 20 și 96 ani).

Apariția carcinomului bazal celular este corelată cu expunerea la raze ultraviolete, dar zonele neexpuse la raze ultraviolete pot dezvolta de asemenea CBC.

Femeile din rasa albă caucaziană sînt mai des afectate decît cele cu pielea pigmentată.

Zone:

Aceste tumori apar de obicei pe suprafața cutanată, dar în unele cazuri (rare) ele pot afecta epiteliul mucos al vulvei.

Patofiziologie:

Iritația cronică a vulvei (ex. purtarea pe termen lung a scutecelor) se pare că ar fi cel mai important factor care contribuie la apariția carcinomului bazocelular vulvar.

Alți factori incriminați: radiații ionizante, arsenic, inflamație cronică, hamartoame, deficiență imună.

Modificări la nivel molecular: Activarea căii de semnalizare Hedgehog care duce la supraexprimarea produselor genelor GLI1 si GLI2.

Pierderea mutației funcționale a PTCH1 sau PTCH2 (Protein PaTCHed homolog 1 sau 2=gene ce codifică receptorul căii de semnalizare Hedgehog).

Activarea unei mutații de SMO.

Mutația P53 a fost identificată in multe cazuri.

Nu are legatură cu HPV (virusul papiloma uman).

Caracteristici clinice:

Leziune nedureroasă, cu creștere lentă, care poate ulcera.

Prurit, discomfort, sîngerare, tumoră sau inflamație, ulcerare și durere (știu, sună contradictoriu=doare sau nu?? dar am tradus exact).

Femeile sub 50 de ani pot să nu aibă prea multe simptome.

Adesea imită eczema, psoriazisul sau alte dermatoze inflamatorii care nu răspund la tratamentul standard.

Diagnosticul de carcinom bazocelular vulvar nu se pune aproape niciodata doar la examinarea clinică.

Descriere macroscopică:

Leziuni vegetante, ulcerate, pedunculate, infiltrative, nodulare sau pigmentate.

Descriere microscopică:

Examinarea histologică este esențială pentru diagnostic.

Caracteristicile sînt similare cu ale carcinomului bazocelular cutanat: proliferarea de cuiburi de celule bazale mici, cu proporție înaltă nucleu/citoplasmă, palisade periferice și fără punți intercelulare evidente.

Figurile mitotice și apoptoza se întîlnesc frecvent în același cuib.

Stroma înconjurătoare este laxă și încărcată de mucină (acid hialuronic), ceea ce duce la artefacte de retracție în timpul prelucrării, datorate contracției mucinei.

Prezența infiltrației perineurale și a spațiului limfivascular ar trebui să se observe.

O varietate largă de tipuri histologice a fost descrisă, cu importanță pentru atitudinea clinică și prognostic:

  • nodular-ulcerativ
  • difuz (infiltrant, micronodular și morfeaform (?)
  • superficial (multifocal)
  • pigmentat
  • fibroepiteliomul lui Pinkus

IMAGINI HISTOLOGICE RELEVANTE GASITI AICI:

https://alina75m.wordpress.com/2014/05/03/carcinomul-bazocelular-vulvar-aspecte-histopatologice-lb-engleza/

6 Conditions that Feel Like Clinical Depression but Aren’t | World of Psychology

6 Conditions that Feel Like Clinical Depression but Aren’t | World of Psychology.

Albendazol versus Metronidazol in tratamentul Giardiei la adulti.

Desi medicii romani afirma ca Albendazolul nu este eficient in tratarea Giardiei la adulti, iata ca un studiu turcesc afirma contrariul.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15069729

In urma studiului facut de medicii turci a reiesit nu doar ca Albendazolul este la fel de eficient ca si Metronidazolul, dar si ca Albendazolul are mai putine efecte secundare.

De asemenea, tot un studiu turcesc a descoperit ca asocierea Metronidazolului cu Saccharomyces Boulardii are efecte mult mai bune in tratarea infectiei cu Giardia.

 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=saccharomyces+boulardii+giardia

Carcinomul bazocelular vulvar-aspecte histologice-lb engleza

Similar to cutaneous basal cell carcinoma.

Epidemiology

2-8% of all vulvar malignancies
Usually women >60 years of age 
Mean age at diagnosis: 70 years (range 20-96 years)
Development of  BCC correlates to ultraviolet light exposure, but non sun exposed areas can also develop BCC
Caucasian women are affected more than those with pigmented skin
Sites
Tumors usually arise from cutaneous surface, but rarely affect mucosal epithelia of vulva
Pathophysiology
Chronic vulvar irritation (e.g. long term use of diapers) appears to be the most important contributing factor
Other proposed factors: ionizing radiation, arsenic, chronic inflammation, hamartomas, immune deficiency
Molecular alterations:
Activation of the Hedgehog signaling pathway leading to overexpression of GLI1 or GLI2 gene products
Loss of function mutations of PTCH1 or PTCH2 (My Cancer Genome – BCC)
Activating mutations of SMO
p53 mutations identified in many cases
Not related to HPV
Clinical features
Slow growing, painless lesion that may ulcerate
Itching, discomfort, bleeding, mass or swelling, ulcer and pain
Younger women (< 50 years) may not have many symptoms
Often mimics eczema, psoriasis or other inflammatory dermatoses that do not respond to standard therapies
Diagnosis of vulvar BCC almost never made at clinical examination

Gross description: Vegetating, ulcerated, pedunculated, infiltrative, nodular or pigmented lesions.

Micro description
Histologic examination is essential for diagnosis.
Features are similar to BCC elsewhere.
Proliferation of nests of small basal cells with high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, peripheral palisading and no obvious intercellular bridges.
Epidermal connection can often be identified.
Mitotic figures and apoptosis are frequently seen within the same nest
The surrounding stroma is loose and mucin-rich (hyaluronic acid), leading to retraction artifacts due to mucin shrinkage during tissue processing.
Presence of perineural infiltration and lymphovascular space involvement should be documented.
A wide variety of histologic types have been described; the following patterns are also clinically significant for management and prognosis:
Nodular/ulcerative
Diffuse (infiltrating, micronodular and morpheaform)
Superficial (multifocal)
Pigmented
Fibroepithelioma of Pinkus

IMAGINI

Atentie!! Din cauza copyright-ului am pus linkurile incomplete. Ca sa vedeti imaginile lipiti in fata linkului www. sau selectati linkul, click dreapta, go to.

flickr.com/photos/40764007@N08/13267198495/

flickr.com/photos/40764007@N08/13267347193/in/photostream/

flickr.com/photos/40764007@N08/13267540644/in/photostream/

flickr.com/photos/40764007@N08/13267344753/in/photostream/

flickr.com/photos/40764007@N08/13267537444/in/photostream/

flickr.com/photos/40764007@N08/13267188795/in/photostream/

flickr.com/photos/40764007@N08/13267533724/in/photostream/

flickr.com/photos/40764007@N08/13267336243/in/photostream/

Adenoid differentiation

ijpmonline.org/viewimage.asp?img=IndianJPatholMicrobiol_2012_55_4_583_107835_f2.jpg

Basophilic nodules with peripheral palisading

escholarship.org/uc/item/5hp4g829/2.jpg

Nodular BCC

http://www.medicaljournals.se/acta/content/?doi=10.2340/00015555-0566&html=1

Dermal tumor mases

ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2763753/figure/F0002/

Infundibulocystic BCC

ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3430110/figure/fig03/

With Paget’s disease

ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3430110/figure/fig01/

Diffuse bcl2+

ijpmonline.org/viewimage.asp?img=IndianJPatholMicrobiol_2012_55_4_583_107835_f3.jpg

Differential diagnosis

  • Clinical differential diagnosis:

Bowen’s disease
Contact dermatitis
Lichen sclerosus
Lichen simplex chronicus
Melanoma
Paget’s disease
Psoriasis

  • Histological differential diagnosis:

Adnexal tumors including desmoplastic trichoepithelioma
Trichoblastoma

Carcinomul glandei Bartholin-aspecte histologice

Dr. Priya Nagarajan, M.D., Ph.D. (cercetator dermatopatologie Ohio State University)

TRADUCERE DIN LB ENGLEZA

Descriere microscopica a Carcinomului glandei Bartholin:

Aspectul histologic al carcinoamelor variaza in functie de zona de origine:

  • Carcinomul scuamos si adenocarcinomul sint cele mai comune tumori maligne cu punct de pornire in glanda Bartholin (~40% fiecare tip), urmate de carcinomul adenoid chistic (~15%)
  • Alte tipuri histologice (~5%) includ:
    • Carcinomul cu celule de tranzitie, carcinomul adenoscuamos, carcinomul slab diferentiat, carcinomul epitelial/mioepitelial de grad scazut, sarcomul, melanomul si carcinomul cu celule clare
  • Carcinom scuamos:
    • De obicei apare din orificiul ductului vestibular sau dintr-o zona de tranzitie
    • Virusul papilomatos uman a fost identificat ca un factor major in carcinogeneza
    • De obicei bine diferentiat, compus din celule poligonale eozinofile keratinizate cu punti intercelulare
    • In tumorile bine diferentiate se observa frecvent perle de keratina
  • Adenocarcinomul:
    • Apare de obicei in zone de tranzitie sau din acini mucosi
    • Compus din celule columnare sau cuboidale cu acumulare de mucina intracelular
    • Pot fi prezente de asemenea acumulari de mucina extravazata
  • Carcinom adenoid chistic
    • Poate avea originea in celulele mioepiteliale
    • De obicei celulele tumorale au grad citologic scazut si sint aranjate intr-un model cribriform (spaţii chistice mici între celulele tumorale, cu aspect “ciuruit”), iar pseudo-lumenii sint umpluti cu mucina sau membrana bazala hialinizata (?)
    • Din cauza tendintei de invazie perineurala extensiva, carcinomul adenoid chistic da frecvente recurente locale

TEXTUL ORIGINAL IN LB ENGLEZA

 Micro description of Bartholin’s gland Carcinoma:

Histology of the carcinoma varies based on site of origin:

  • Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and adenocarcinomas are the most common malignant tumors arising from the Bartholin’s gland (~40% each), followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC, ~15%)
  • Other histological types (~5%) include:
    • Transitional cell carcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, low grade epithelial- myoepithelial carcinoma, sarcoma, melanoma, and clear cell carcinoma
  • Squamous cell carcinoma:
    • Usually arises from vestibular duct orifice or at transition zone
    • Human papilloma virus infection has been identified as a major contributing factor in its carcinogenesis
    • Usually well differentiated, composed of polygonal eosinophilic, keratinizing cells with intercellular bridges
    • Keratin pearls are frequently noted in well differentiated tumors
  • Adenocarcinoma:
    • Frequently arises at transition zone or from mucin producing acini
    • Composed of columnar to cuboidal cells containing intracellular mucin
    • Pools of extravasated mucin may also be present
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma:
    • May originate from myoepithelial cells
    • Tumor cells usually have low cytologic grade and are arranged in a cribriform pattern, and the (pseudo) lumens are filled with mucin or hyalinized basement membrane material
    • Because of its tendency for extensive perineural invasion, ACC is associated with frequent local recurrence”

IMAGINI CARCINOM GLANDA BARTHOLIN

Atentie!! Din cauza legii copyright-ului am postat toate linkurile incomplete.

Ca sa le accesati lipiti in fata linkurilor http://www.

(sau selectati, click dreapta si ”go to”-merge si asa)

Carcinom chistic adenoid

ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3862213/figure/f0015/

(A: The mass had a lobular structure and showed infiltrative proliferation (Hematoxylin & Eosin staining × 20). B: The tumor cells were relatively homogeneous, small and circular to oval in shape containing a nucleus with densely stained chromatin. The nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio was high (Hematoxylin & Eosin staining × 200). C: The tumor cells proliferated in an alveolar pattern, forming many large and small pseudocysts, with mucus-filled lumens, and showed a cribriform pattern (Hematoxylin & Eosin staining × 100). D: The tumor cells showed infiltrative proliferation into the surrounding soft tissue. No perineural infiltration, considered to be characteristic of Bartholin’s tumors, was detected (Hematoxylin & Eosin staining × 40).)

pathologyoutlines.com/caseofweek/case172image1.jpg

pathologyoutlines.com/caseofweek/case172image2.jpg

pathologyoutlines.com/caseofweek/case172image3.jpg

pathologyoutlines.com/caseofweek/case172image4.jpg

pathologyoutlines.com/caseofweek/case172image5.jpg

Adenocarcinom: 

  • Adenocarcinom mucinos bine diferentiat

a.) jjco.oxfordjournals.org/content/31/5/226/F2/graphic-2.large.jpg

b.) jjco.oxfordjournals.org/content/31/5/226/F2/graphic-3.large.jpg

Microscopic findings by H&E staining. A well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma is shown. The squamous mucosal surface was partially broken by the tumor which extended from the submucosal tissue [(a), ×45]. The tumor cells had abundant cytoplasm and prejudiced nuclei floated loosely or fence-like in a mucinous lake. Formation of cancer lumen was poor. Some of the tumor cells had crescent-shaped nuclei, the so-called signet ring-type cells [(b), ×225]

jjco.oxfordjournals.org/content/31/5/226/F3.large.jpg

(Immunohistochemical expression of CA19-9. CA19-9 was focally expressed both in the cytoplasm and on the cell membrane of tumor cells (×400).)

jjco.oxfordjournals.org/content/31/5/226/F4.large.jpg

(The expression of CEA was present in the cytoplasm of almost all the tumor cells (×400).)

jjco.oxfordjournals.org/content/31/5/226/F5.large.jpg

(p53 protein expressed in the nuclei of the tumor cells (×400). Signet ring-type tumor cells were positive for p53 staining.)

jjco.oxfordjournals.org/content/31/5/226/F6.large.jpg

(MIB-1 antigen expressed in the nuclei of the tumor cells (×400). Signet ring-type tumor cells were negative for MIB-1 staining.)

  • Adenocarcinom apocrin

ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3804815/figure/fig001/

(A) Unremarkable epidermis with tumor bulk in dermis 40×; B) Abundant mitotic activity and focal necrosis 100×; C) CEA 100×; D) CK7 100×; E) EMA 100×; F) GCDFP 100×.)

Carcinom scuamos

flickr.com/photos/40764007@N08/12908234553/in/photostream/

flickr.com/photos/40764007@N08/12908574854/in/photostream/

flickr.com/photos/40764007@N08/12908154785/in/photostream/

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flickr.com/photos/40764007@N08/12908149805/in/photostream/

flickr.com/photos/40764007@N08/12908246143/in/photostream/

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flickr.com/photos/40764007@N08/12908253013/

flickr.com/photos/40764007@N08/12908249983/in/photostream/

flickr.com/photos/40764007@N08/12908164725/

Imagini microscop electronic

ijpmonline.org/viewimage.asp?img=IndianJPatholMicrobiol_2010_53_1_171_59221_u1.jpg

(adenosquamous variant of bartholin gland carcinoma showing nests of tumor cells undergoing central comedo-necrosis (H and E; x 100))

ijpmonline.org/viewimage.asp?img=IndianJPatholMicrobiol_2010_53_1_171_59221_u2.jpg

(dark and light secretory granules characteristi c of bartholin gland (TEM; x 5000)

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